Team: Programs | Commitment: Consultant | Location: Pakistan
Horticulture IPM Specialist
US-Pakistan Partnership for Agricultural Market Development
SCOPE OF WORK
CNFA-AMD/ Project Number AID-391-C-15-00003
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) capacity building for HVOSV crops/systems
Horticulture IPM Specialist
Chief Technical Advisor – AMD
Place of Performance
Lahore, Punjab and Sindh
23 days, including 2 international travel days, 18 days in country, 3 days for report preparation
Est. Period of Performance
February 01, 2018 – March 31, 2018
The U.S.-Pakistan Partnership for Agricultural Market Development (AMD) activity in Pakistan is a USAID-funded activity implemented by CNFA with the goal of supporting the development of Pakistan’s commercial agriculture. This is envisioned to be achieved through improving the ability of Pakistan’s agriculture and livestock sectors to meet both international and domestic demands and requirements in AMD’s four targeted product lines: Citrus, Mango, High Value/Off Season Vegetables and Livestock. AMD envisions transforming the four targeted product lines into efficient, private sector-led value chains that deliver competitive products to domestic and export markets. AMD’s targeted training, matching grants, and technical assistance will leverage private sector investment and encourage innovation. Together, these approaches will support upgrades, streamlining of supply chains, optimization of profit margins, and an increase in the participation of women entrepreneurs, ultimately making Pakistani mango, citrus, meat and HV/OSV more profitable and competitive.
The horticulture sector contributes about 12% of GDP and provides employment and incomes to several actors along the value chains. An estimated 13.67 MMT of horticultural products are grown annually with post-harvest losses averaging about 25%. Only 4% of the annual production is exported, garnering less than 50% of average world prices due to both inferior quality of produce, and sales in low-value markets.
The Pakistani economy has grown steadily over the last 60 years at an average annual rate of 4.9% and has nearly doubled in size in only the last 10 years from a national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of USD 137 billion in 2006 to over USD 270 billion in 2015. The country’s growth, however, has been inconsistent, with many cycles of booms and busts. Pakistan is considered an emerging market economy, but it lags on many development metrics, including being ranked 147th out of 188 countries on the 2016 Human Development Index. Agriculture remains the second largest economic sector in Pakistan, contributing approximately 25% to the national GDP and absorbing roughly 42% of the labor force, mainly composed of women. The sector is not only the largest employer in the country, but also generates over 75% of export revenue through agri-based textiles (cotton) and agri-food products. The country is among the world’s largest textile and rice exporters, and imports significant quantities of palm oil used in cooking.
To meet domestic and export demand for agriculture products inclusive of fruits and vegetables, pesticide/herbicide/fungicide is another major input which plays a crucial role in ensuring crop productivity and the quality of produce by protecting crops from diseases and pests. Putting aside environmental issues and residual effects hazardous to human health, the cost-benefit ratio of pesticide dictates that farmers use them. Pakistan imports generic as well as branded chemicals, mostly in form of concentrates, worth billions of rupees every year. Excessive use of pesticide increases the immunity of pests to future treatments, toxicant elements in eco-system, and hazards to applicators (farmer or laborers), as well as to other human beings and animals who consume contaminated food, or encounter such chemical application. In the US, herbicide constitutes 85% of total pesticide applied, whereas in Pakistan insecticide ranks first with 85% of total pesticide use, in which 60 – 65% of insecticide is used only for cotton crop, followed by paddy, cereals and sugar cane with 7%, 4%, and 2%, respectively. Herbicide usage in Pakistan is around only 10% of total pesticide application.
Over the years, per-hectare spending on chemical spray for various crops, except Bt cotton, rose due to the following reasons:
a) Climactic changes are resulting in abrupt rains, developing greater humidity and favourable conditions for pests.
b) Due to indiscriminate spraying of chemicals on crops, the immunity level of pests has increased, requiring more frequent, higher potency and more advanced chemicals, which are relatively more expensive.
c) The incidence of pest attack is higher on plants nurtured by fertilizers, and sown by high yielding varieties (HYV) seeds. With the increasing use of HYVs and fertilizers, use of pesticide is also growing.
Objective of the Technical Assistance:
To formalize a consistent and improved supply of HV/OSV produce, AMD intends to support competitively selected businesses in establishing/improving their contractual farming through interventions with commercial players in the horticulture sector to substantially support food safety. As part of AMD’s integrated strategy, awareness of best practices in IPM techniques will help to reduce the cost of production, improve quality, and support the natural biosphere of the area. AMD intends to hire an International Horticulture/Entomologist/Plant Protection Specialist (specialized in Integrated Pest Management (IPM)) to conduct a situational HV/OSV sectoral analysis of current IPM techniques utilized by AMD identified stakeholders and conduct capacity building sessions in Punjab and Sindh.
The consultant’s tasks will include but not be limited to:
Demonstrate hands on training and TA for use of various techniques to identify, control and mitigate the pest attack on vegetables under controlled conditions and open field conditions. The consultant will conduct capacity building sessions to guide the identified stakeholders in the importance of integrated pest management and suggest improved technologies/techniques based on the situational analysis, including tools and equipment as cost-effective measures in the Integrated Management system (IPM). Analyze and design a quick-reference poster illustrating the most common pest types (insects & diseases of HV/OSV crops) predominant in Pakistan along with preventive measures. Identify IPM technologies being used in other countries that could be relevant in Pakistan, for example RIDL (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal), to control mosquitos, fruit fly and pink bollworm. Conduct capacity building sessions in Sindh and Punjab, which should include the following:
● Preventive techniques such as cultural practices, proper planting and selecting resistant/tolerant verities to avoid pest infestation;
● Techniques used to identify the economical pest threshold levels and pest scouting techniques and their benefits for cost-effective and food safe produce that meets international and national requirements;
● How to monitor and identify target pests in vegetable crops, under both field and controlled conditions;
● How to reduce chemical usage and promote mechanical and cultural practices for controlling pests;
● Appropriate actions to be taken in case of pest threshold level exceeding the economical limits;
● Record keeping of inputs and production;
● Demonstration of a computer based program system for daily, monthly and annual recording of pest activity and trend analysis;
- Develop a detailed work plan and a brief suggested methodology during the period of assignment for approved by AMD COP;
- Poster layout depicting the most common pest types (insects & diseases) of relevant HV/OSV crops globally in comparison with the pests predominant in Pakistan, with preventive measures;
- Report on methods and techniques devised for the identification and determination of the threshold level for economically viable control measures of predominant pests in Pakistan;
- Report of new IPM technologies from other countries outlining the awareness campaign and adoption of those technologies;
- Provide details on recent advanced techniques, tools and practices for IPM which are adapted worldwide
- Develop the curriculum, documents and Power Point presentation for conducting capacity building sessions that includes, but is not limited to, the following topics:
- Preventive techniques such as cultural practices, proper planting and selecting resistant/tolerant verities to avoid pest infestation;
- Techniques used to identify the economical pest threshold levels and pest-scouting techniques and their benefits for cost-effective and food safe produce that meets international and national requirements;
- How to monitor and identify target pests in vegetable crops.;
- How to reduce chemical usage and promote mechanical and cultural practices for controlling pests;
- Appropriate actions to be taken in case of pest threshold level exceeding the economical limits;
- Record keeping of inputs and production;
- Demonstration of a computer based program system for daily, monthly and annual recording of pest activity and trend analysis;
- With support from the AMD technical team, conduct two capacity building sessions for HV/OSV stakeholders, one in Sindh and one in Punjab;
- Submit a final draft report along with Power Point presentation used in the capacity building sessions to CNFA within 10 business days after completion of the assignment;
- Any other tasks assigned by the COP or Chief Technical Advisor relating to IPM/ ICM
- Graduate or doctorate degree in agriculture, horticulture, entomology, or related field;
- Over 10 years’ practical experience in modern commercial agriculture practices for controlling the pest population within threshold level;
- Work experience with international donors, preferably with USAID-sponsored programs or other similar development projects a plus;
- Demonstrated understanding of Pakistan and/or the region a plus;
- Proven hands-on experience in capacity building of good agricultural practices and Global GAP for individual growers, groups, exporters;
- Understanding of phyto-sanitary practices and regulations for compliance;
- Experience in training and capacity building in IPM/ICM in controlled environment production
- LOE and Period of Performance:
- The period of performance for this consultancy begins on or about February 01, 2018 through March 31, 2018.
- The estimated level of effort (LOE) for the assignment is 23 days (detail given below)