Team: Programs | Commitment: Consultant | Location: Pakistan

ISTTA for Climate Smart Agriculture for HVOSV production systems.

CNFA-AMD Project

US-Pakistan Partnership for Agricultural Market Development




Project Name

CNFA-AMD/ Project Number AID-391-C-15-00003

Consultancy Assignment

ISTTA Consultant  High Value/Off Season Vegetable Program

Consultant Title

ISTTA for Climate Smart Agriculture for HVOSV production systems.

Reports to

Chief Technical Advisor – AMD

Place of Performance

 Punjab and Sindh


 25 Days


Project Description:


The U.S.-Pakistan Partnership for Agricultural Market Development (AMD) activity in Pakistan is a USAID funded activity implemented by CNFA with the goal of supporting the development of Pakistan’s commercial agriculture. This is envisioned to be achieved through improving the ability of Pakistan’s agriculture and livestock sectors to meet both international and domestic demands and requirements in AMD’s four targeted product lines: Citrus, Mango, High Value/Off Season Vegetables and Livestock. AMD envisions transforming the four targeted product lines into efficient, private sector-led value chains that deliver competitive products to domestic and export markets. AMD’s targeted training, matching grants, and technical assistance will leverage private sector investment and encourage innovation. Together, these approaches will support upgrades, streamlining of supply chains, optimization of profit margins, and an increase in the participation of women entrepreneurs, ultimately making Pakistani mango, citrus, meat and HV/OSV more profitable and competitive.

Background Information:


The horticulture sector contributes about 12% of GDP and provides employment and incomes to several actors along the value chains. An estimated 13.67 MMT of horticultural products are grown annually with post-harvest losses averaging about 25%.  Only 4% of the annual production is exported, garnering less than 50% of average world prices due to poor quality of produce and to sales in low-value markets.

Most fruits and vegetables are sold in fresh form.  Little value is added in the way of sorting, grading, or packaging and post-harvest losses are unsustainably high. A very low percentage of fruits and vegetables are processed.  Farmers face numerous challenges maintaining product value from harvest to market.  The limited availability of cold chain facilities is a major constraint, resulting in products with a short shelf life that quickly loses its freshness.



Over 35 kinds of vegetables are grown in various ecological zones in Pakistane. The   climate-smart   agriculture    (CSA) concept   reflects an ambition to improve the integration of agriculture development   and   climate   responsiveness.   It aims   to achieve   food   security   and   broader   development – goals under  a  changing   climate  and  increasing  food  demand. CSA initiatives sustainably  increase  productivity,  enhance resilience,  and  reduce/remove greenhouse gases  (GHGs), and require planning to address tradeoffs and synergies between  these  three  pillars: productivity,  adaptation, and mitigation [1]. The priorities of different countries and stakeholders are reflected to achieve more efficient, effective and equitable   food-  systems   that  address   challenges   in  environmental,  social,  and  economic dimensions across productive  landscapes. While the concept is new, and  still evolving, many of the practices  that make  up CSA already exist  worldwide  and  are  used   by  farmers   to  cope   with various production risks [2]. Mainstreaming  CSA requires critical stocktaking  of ongoing  and promising  practices  for the  future,  and  of institutional  and  financial  enablers  for CSA adoption.  This country profile provides a snapshot of a developing baseline  created  to  initiate discussion, both within countries and globally, about entry points for investing in CSA at scale. Changes in monsoons and  increased  temperatures are  likely to bring considerable challenges to the agricultural sector,     particularly     in     northern     Pakistan,     where vulnerability to climate change is already high. Investment in CSA will be required to ensure a stable food supply in this dynamic economy in the face of climate change.

The Pakistani economy  has been  growing steadily over the last 60  years  at  an  average  annual  rate  of 4.9% and  has nearly doubled  in size in only the  last 10 years from GDP of US$ 137 billion in 2006 to over US$ 270 billion in 2015. The country’s growth, however, has been inconsistent, with many cycles of booms and busts. Pakistan is considered an emerging market economy, but it lags on many development metrics,  including being ranked 147th out of 188 countries on the 2016 Human  Development  Index .Agriculture remains  the second largest economic sector  in Pakistan,  contributing  approximately  25% to  the  national Gross Domestic  Product  (GDP) [3]1  and absorbing  roughly 42% of the labour  force, mainly composed of women  [4]. The sector is not only the largest employer in the country but generates over 75% of export revenue through  agri-based textiles  (cotton)  and  agri-food  products [5]. The country is among the world’s largest textile and rice exporters and imports significant quantities of palm oil used in cooking.

Despite its critical importance to food security, livelihoods, economic growth and export revenues,  agricultural productivity remains  low, with significant yield gaps compared  to  global  averages   in  key  crops   like  wheat, rice and  sugarcane. The  average  farm  size in Pakistan  is 2.6  hectares (ha), with approximately  43% of the  farmers categorized  as smallholders  with holdings  of less than  one ha, while only 22% own more than 3 ha of land As part of an integrated strategy to formalize a consistent and improved supply of produce, where appropriate, AMD intends to support competitively selected businesses to establish/upgrade cold chain facilities at processor level, which will reduce post-harvest losses and increase marketing time for the fresh vegetables.


Objective of the Technical Assistance:


AMD intends to hire an international Horticulture (specialized in vegetable production under controlled production systems with hands on experience for vegetable production under variable climate stress conditions.).

Assignment Scope:


The consultant’s tasks will include but not be limited to:

Demonstrate hands on training and TA for use of various techniques to mitigate the weathering impact on the vegetable production under controlled conditions and open field conditions. S/he is supposed to guide the famrers for the effects of weathering agencies on the crops and suggest new technologies/techniques/tools and equipments as cost effective measures as Climate Smart Agriculture models. It may include the High efficiency irrigation systems particularly drip irrigation for the best use of water and water conservation as a resource. Also demonstrate the use of controlled fertilizer application through fertigation systems.

·         Scoping for Greenhouse and semi controlled HVOV production at selected program sites

·         Detailed GAP analysis for technology use and efficiency, input supplies, post-harvest practices, cold chains, local and international markets.

·         Best High value and off season vegetable farming and production at AMD identified farms (s)

·         Integrated farm management practices with cost effective techniques for small and medium size vegetable farms under tunnels or  green house

·         High efficiency irrigation system- in the controlled and semi controlled green houses, vegetable tunnels

·         Onsite trainings for advanced crop cultivations methods, modified time lines in response to the local environmental conditions/weather conditions for irrigation, fertilizer/nutrients managements according to  phonological stages of summer and winter vegetables.

·         Application dose and time of micro nutrients with safe use of water to enhance the quality and production of vegetables under controlled environment.

·         Onsite training of farm workers, managers and owners for record keeping of inputs and production along with cost benefit analysis.

·         Use of computer based program for daily, monthly and annual record of farm practices for inputs, production and market analysis.

·         Develop appropriate strategies to assist program beneficiaries in improved and best management practices in vegetable field operations, moreover, link them to the packinghouses to get a better price for their product.



1.       Develop and submit brief suggested methodology for the period of assignment and get it approved by AMD COP or his designee before arrival to Pakistan. 

2.       Develop a detail work plan in consultation with tech team of AMD project for the execution of assignment at field level;       

3.       Submit report of evaluation  on impacts of  climate  on the vegetable production in open fields and under controlled conditions and suggest environmental mitigations measures for better production and quality.

4.       Submit report with suggested new technologies, new varieties and new methods to help overcome the environmental complexes on the production and handling of fresh vegetables for local market and export market, which includes the following;

·         Introduction of Stress tolerant varieties

·         Introduction of HEIS irrigation systems or modified irrigation system

·         Use of soil amendments for better crop stands

·         Use of IPM to help stabilize the natural flora and fauna of  the climate

·         Use of compatible crops with high cropping intensities and crop sustainability

·         Mitigation technologies against persistent heat stress and intense cold /frost stress at various stages of crop growth and development

5.       Submit a  1-page weekly updates to the COP, or his designee related to assignment;

6.       Conduct two on-site trainings (One each at Sindh and Punjab province)  to farm workers, managers and owners covering the following topics;

o   for record keeping of inputs and production along with cost benefit analysis

o   Present the findings in the form of power point presentation to AMD technical team.    

7.       Submit Final Report along with power point presentation to CNFA, using AMD template, within 5 business days upon completion of the assignment.

8.       Any other tasks assigned by the COP or Chief Technical Advisor relating to design and development of vegetable production and handling practices interventions.

Knowledge, Skill and Ability Requirements:

·         Graduate or doctorate degree in Agriculture, horticulture, Agribusiness or other related field;

·         Over 10 year’s practical industry experience in modern agriculture practices for vegetable production under stressed environmental conditions  with the use of Drip Irrigation and controlled environment plant production systems including greenhouses, shade-houses.

·         Work experience with international donors, preferably with USAID-sponsored programs or other similar development projects;

·         Demonstrated understanding of Pakistan and/or the region, a plus.

·         Hands on experience in sourcing of raw material, nutrients, growth regulators, packaging material, washing, grading, transportation and marketing both local as well as international markets.

·         Hands on experience in Good Agricultural practices and Global GAP certification for individual growers and groups.

·         Understanding of phyto sanitary practices and regulations for compliance.

·         Experience in training and development of workers in greenhouse production

LOE, Period and Place of Performance:

The level of effort (LOE) and the periods for this consultancy include 30 days around January 05 onward.

Estimated level of effort (LOE) in country is for the assignment: :25 Days (detail given below)



Week 1

  Travel day 2 days


 Review of back ground information, reports reading, suggested methodology  work from home  2 days

Development of appropriate strategies to assist program beneficiaries in improved and best management practices in Climate Smart Agriculture/ integrated Agriculture approach for vegetable operations. 2 days

 Week 2

Development of appropriate strategies to assist program beneficiaries in improved and best management practices in Climate Smart Agriculture/ integrated Agriculture approach for vegetable operations. 2 days

Technical assistance and onsite trainings for nutrient management, IPM, drip irrigation and Production practices under agroenviornmental conditions to the HVOSV farmers in Pakistan. 3 days

 Week 3

Technical assistance and onsite trainings for nutrient management, IPM, drip irrigation and Production practices under agroenvio

Week 4

Submit a final report covering all aspects of the STTA using the AMD template within 10 business days of completion of assignment. 3 days.


 Power Point presentation and first draft review with AMD team. 2 days


 Travel Day 1 day.


 Total days 30